「Django」rest_framework学习系列-序列化 - Go语言中文社区

「Django」rest_framework学习系列-序列化


序列化
方式一 :在业务类里序列化数据库数据

class RolesView(APIView):
    def get(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
        roles = models.Role.objects.all().values('id','title')[1:3]
        ret = list(roles)
        r = json.dumps(ret,ensure_ascii=False)
        return HttpResponse(r)
View Code

方式二:写个序列化的类,在业务类中引用,序列化类中可以定制字段

class UserinfoSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    #字段名与数据库相同则替换,不同则添加
    type = serializers.CharField(source='get_usertype_display')
    gb = serializers.CharField(source='group.title')
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        #全部显示
        fields = '__all__'
        #定制显示
        # fields = ['id','username','type','gb']
定制类
class UserInfo(models.Model):
    usertype_choices = (
        (1,'普通用户'),
        (2,'VIP用户'),
        (3,'SVIP用户')
    )
    usertype = models.IntegerField(choices=usertype_choices,verbose_name='用户类型')
    username = models.CharField(max_length=32,unique=True,verbose_name='用户名')
    password = models.CharField(max_length=64,verbose_name='密码')
    group = models.ForeignKey('UserGroup',on_delete=models.DO_NOTHING,verbose_name='分组')
    roles = models.ManyToManyField('Role',verbose_name='职业')
    class Meta:
        verbose_name = '用户管理'
        verbose_name_plural = verbose_name

    def __str__(self):
        return self.username
对应数据库结构
class UserInfoView(APIView):
    authentication_classes = []
    permission_classes = []
    def get(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
        m = models.UserInfo.objects.all()
        ser = UserinfoSerializer(instance=m,many=True)
        #单表的话这里many = false
        return Response(ser.data)    
业务类

方式二补充:source不适合many to many,many to many需要自定义显示

role = serializers.SerializerMethodField() #自定义显示
def get_role(self,row):
     role_list = row.roles.all()
     ret = []
     for item in role_list:
         ret.append({'id':item.id,'title':item.title})
     return ret
many to many

方式三:depth根本连表结构往深层取值

class UserinfoSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    usertype = serializers.CharField(source='get_usertype_display')
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        #全部显示
        fields = '__all__'
        depth = 1  #0~10之间
        #定制显示
        # fields = ['id','username','type','gb']
定制类
[{"id": 1, "usertype": 1, "username": "wrx", "password": "123", "group": {"id": 1, "title": "A组"}, "roles": [{"id": 2, "title": "老师"}, {"id": 3, "title": "医生"}]}, 
{"id": 2, "usertype": 2, "username": "ylp", "password": "123", "group": {"id": 2, "title": "B组"}, "roles": [{"id": 3, "title": "医生"}]}]
取值结果

方式四:生成链接,即把上述类的group生成链接

class UserinfoSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    usertype = serializers.CharField(source='get_usertype_display')
    group = serializers.HyperlinkedIdentityField(view_name='grp',lookup_field='group_id',lookup_url_kwarg='pk')
    #name,pk值对应urls中的re-path
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserInfo
        #全部显示
        fields = '__all__'
        depth = 1  #0~10之间
        #定制显示
        # fields = ['id','username','type','gb']
定制类
re_path(r'^(?P<version>[v1|v2]+)/group/(?P<pk>d+)$',GroupView.as_view(),name='grp')
PS:这里经历了一个错误,如果配置了全局的版本控制(详见版本控制配置),这里要也要配置,否则会一直报错
django.core.exceptions.ImproperlyConfigured: Could not resolve URL for hyperlinked relationship using view name "grp". You may have failed to include the related model in your API, or incorrectly configured the `lookup_field` attribute on this field.
class UserInfoView(APIView):
    def get(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
        m = models.UserInfo.objects.all()
        ser = UserinfoSerializer(instance=m,many=True,context={'request':request})
        return Response(ser.data)
Views业务类

PS:实例这个定制类的时候要加要加context={'request':request}

实际调用的是另一个views类的url

class GroupSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = models.UserGroup
        fields = '__all__'

class GroupView(APIView):
    def get(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
        pk = kwargs.get('pk')
        obj = models.UserGroup.objects.filter(pk=pk).first()
        ser = GroupSerializer(instance=obj, many=False)
        t = json.dumps(ser.data, ensure_ascii=False)
        return HttpResponse(t)
上面re_path对应的定制类和业务类

方式五:三张表互相关联的反向查找

class Course(models.Model):
    title = models.CharField(max_length=32,verbose_name='课程名称')
    course_img = models.ImageField(verbose_name='课程图片',upload_to = "static/img/")
    course_choice = (
        (0, '入门级'),
        (1, '普通难度'),
        (2, '中等难度'),
        (3, '高级难度'),
    )
    level = models.IntegerField(verbose_name='课程难度',choices=course_choice,default=0)

    class Meta:
        verbose_name = '课程管理'
        verbose_name_plural = verbose_name

    def __str__(self):
        return self.title

class CourseInfo(models.Model):
    why = models.CharField(verbose_name='课程描述',max_length=255)
    course = models.OneToOneField(to='Course',on_delete=models.DO_NOTHING,verbose_name='关联课程')
    recommend_course = models.ManyToManyField(to='Course',verbose_name='推荐课程',related_name='rc')

    class Meta:
        verbose_name = '课程详细'
        verbose_name_plural = verbose_name

    def __str__(self):
        return '课程详细:'+self.course.title

class Section(models.Model):
    num = models.IntegerField(verbose_name='章节')
    name = models.CharField(max_length=64,verbose_name='课程章节')
    course = models.ForeignKey(to='Course', on_delete=models.DO_NOTHING, verbose_name='关联课程')

    class Meta:
        verbose_name = '课程章节'
        verbose_name_plural = verbose_name

    def __str__(self):
        return '课程章节'+self.course.title
表结构

PS:第二张表与第一张表多对多并且单对单(这里有个小知识点,同时多对多和单对单的时候有一张表要加related_name='rc'),第三张表与第一张表一对多,需求:通过序列化第二张表得到第一张表和第三张表的相关内容

class CourseinfoSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    #单对单,单对多,choice可以用这种方式,多对多不能使用
    title = serializers.CharField(source='course.title')
    level = serializers.CharField(source='course.get_level_display')
    #多对多需要自定义
    recommends = serializers.SerializerMethodField()
    def get_recommends(self, row):
        role_list = row.recommend_course.all()
        ret = []
        for item in role_list:
            ret.append({'id': item.id, 'title': item.title})
        return ret
    #3张表互相关联的反向查找
    sections = serializers.SerializerMethodField()
    def get_sections(self, row):
        role_list = row.course.section_set.all()
        ret = []
        for item in role_list:
            ret.append({'num': item.num, 'name': item.name})
        return ret
    class Meta:
        model = models.CourseInfo
        # fields = '__all__'
        fields = ['id','title','level','why','recommends','sections']
        # depth = 2
定制类
    def retrieve(self,request, *args, **kwargs):
        ret = {'code': 1000, 'data': None}
        pk = kwargs.get('pk')
        try:
            obj = models.CourseInfo.objects.filter(course_id=pk)
            ser = sl.CourseinfoSerializer(instance=obj, many=True)
            ret['data'] = ser.data
        except Exception as e:
            ret['code'] = 1001
            ret['error'] = '获取课程失败'
        return Response(ret)
业务类

PS:这实际是个类的get请求,re_path(r'^course/(?P<pk>d+)$',views.CourseView.as_view({'get':'retrieve'})),

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

序列化-数据验证,验证title数据不能为空且必须以wrx开头

class UserGroupSerializer(serializers.Serializer):
    title = serializers.CharField(error_messages={'required':'标题不能为空'},)
    def validate_title(self,value):
        if not value.startswith('wrx'):
            message = '标题必须以%s开头'%'wrx'
            raise exceptions.ValidationError(message)
        else:
            return value
定制类
class UserGroupView(APIView):
    def post(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
        src = ''
        res = UserGroupSerializer(data=request.data)
        if res.is_valid():
            print(res.validated_data)
            src = str(res.validated_data['title'])
        else:
            print(res.errors)
            src = str(res.errors)
        return HttpResponse(src)
业务类

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/wrxblog/p/10402580.html

版权声明:本文来源CSDN,感谢博主原创文章,遵循 CC 4.0 by-sa 版权协议,转载请附上原文出处链接和本声明。
原文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/weixin_30808693/article/details/98877737
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  • 发表于 2021-06-14 00:09:35
  • 阅读 ( 788 )
  • 分类:Go

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